Quantum computing is a form of computing that harnesses the unique properties of quantum particles, including superposition, entanglement, and interference, to do calculations. The devices which do quantum computing work by utilizing quantum bits, which are little pieces of data that can be in different states at the same time. By using these bits, the computers can make quick calculations and process information much more quickly than conventional computers could. While it may seem complicated, or even an impossible endeavor, it is made possible by the laws of physics. Although quantum computing is very complicated and hard to understand, it is very important, as we learn more about the world around us.
Quantum computing works on two separate principles: classical and quantum superposition. Classical superposition is the idea that the universe is made of nothing but energy and matter in a steady state. It is the idea that everything is in a state of superposition, where it is neither moving nor stationary. According to quantum computing, everything is in a superposition between states of near-permanent zero and states of near-infrared infinity. In other words, a classical system is said to be in a superposition between two states, while a quantum system is said to be in a superposition between two states of near-permanent zero and states of near-infrared infinity.
Quantum computing relies on the idea of entanglement. Entanglement refers to the phenomenon in which a particle stays connected to itself even when it is not being Observed. For instance, light waves are considered to be entangled if two light waves are brought together, even when the particles involved are far apart. Another similar example of entanglement is the relationship between the electron and an atom in a hydrogen atom, wherein the electron appears to follow the orbit of the atom, even though it is not being observed.
Quantum computing is based on the premise that any machine that operates with the aid of a bit, whether it is an electronic computer, a digital computer, or a quantum computer, is said to have a superposition over a complete range of states of matter, much like a wave that follows a stationary wave. By measuring a bit, the researcher is able to extract the bits of information from the machine, and form it into a certain form. With this concept, the researchers say that they have been able to make progress in quantum physics.
Quantum computing was believed to be impossible until the advent of the transistor. Transistors, which are the units that store information in a computer, allowed scientists to experiment with entanglement and quantum computing. They were able to discover how to control machines by entwinding them with electric currents. This is just one of the applications of the transistor, which was further developed with the help of John Bell, who is considered to be the father of the transistor. The development of the transistor paved the way for the development of quantum computing.
The reason behind how quantum computing works is due to the fact that classical computers, which are believed to be the first form of computers, work using exponentially large number of variables, much like the world of dice. These variables then all sum up, resulting in the probability that an individual will get the right answer. However, quantum computing operates using exponentially smaller number of variables. Although quantum computers are still not as large as classical computers, they are still much more compact and efficient than classical computers. The reason for this is because the particles involved are protons, electrons, and photons, which are all very tiny.
Physicists believe that the future of quantum computing is already here. Part of the reason why is because of the work of George Mason University graduate student Zhi Zhong, who is currently undertaking a project called femtoenergy. This project involves creating new ways in which to use qubits in quantum computing. In order for femtoenergy to be completed successfully, she needs the help of several other groups, such as those at University College London in the United Kingdom, University of Melbourne in Australia, and at the University of Oxford in United Kingdom. Two additional groups, the Australian National University and Institute for Defense Analysis in Japan, are also collaborating with her.
To solve problems in quantum computing, experts have been working for years on making sure that large numbers of qubits can be reliably produced by these computers. They have been able to solve problems such as those that will help them crack the current code that is encasing the secrets of the mysterious codes that make up keys and passwords. Quantum bits, or qubits, are essential in enabling quantum computers to solve problems, since these are the parts of the code that allow them to function correctly. The problem that they are currently trying to solve is the question as to how to create more of these important particles.