Quantum computing is the science of organizing information in systems that exhibit ‘quantum’ properties. In quantum computing, a single qubit / kju b (t%) or quantum bit (t%) is the fundamental unit of quantum data the quantum version of an ordinary classical binary bit, which can be conceived as the smallest unit of information within the classical world. A qubit can only be in one state at any given time – in other words it cannot be in more than one state at once. The best known example of a qubit is the qubit at the center of a black hole (a q Whispering Centre), which is a very hot region where nothing can exist except radiation.

In quantum computing, the number of bits used to describe a single bit, is called ‘qubits’. A number of theories describe the behavior of these qubits, including supercomputers based on the work done at Bell Labs, USA and the UK, and entangled systems based on the theory formulated by James Clerk Maxwell. Bell’s original idea was based on experiments using wireless telegraph systems, which relied on the ‘entanglement’ between the sender and receiver to measure the position and speed of telegrams. The same theory is now applied to information storage by use of a pair of entangled qubits.

A quantum computer is a system which uses the Bell’s Bell paradox to solve certain specific problems. In a classical system, if you feed a logical qubit into an entangled one, there is a probability that both particles will be in exactly the same state prior to the entanglement, but this is not the case when using quantum computing. Physicists were able to exploit the unique behaviour of these particles to carry out certain useful tasks using them. An example is the Bell’s Inflation, which refers to the strange behaviour of particles which completely outdistance the speed of light.

Entangled qubits can only exist in two states: either they are in a combined state or they are both ‘particles’. It is possible to control the particles depending on whether they are in state ‘one’ or state ‘two’, where the outcome is then dependent on the information that is put into the entangled qubits. A typical algorithm which solves a particular problem in quantum computing is based on a particular set of constraints. For example, the developer needs to find out how many times a specific problem will be solved with the help of pairs of qubits, given some input parameters, such as a temperature.

Quantum computers use error correction, which is very important in the calculation of many integral processes. Because these types of errors are caused by entanglement between the qubits, which is impossible in a classical computer, they are corrected with the help of a quantum computer. Quantum computing is used for solving problems which are too complicated to be solved using classical methods, such as those involved in fibre network communications. In such cases, the error correction is done using entangled qubits, which is also known as error correction protocol (EDP).

It is believed that quantum computing is not far away from application. Physicists, such as Albert Einstein and Konstantin Khrenov, have worked out algorithms which can solve optimization problems efficiently. Similarly, programmers have created language codes, which can solve machine learning problems on a large scale. Another application of quantum computing has been in the field of terrorism, where the security agencies of various countries use supercomputers to track and interrogate terrorist suspects. The British government has already announced its intention to build a ‘quantum computer’ to track potential weapons installations.

A new idea on behalf of a group of Canadian scientists has proposed building a quantum computer in the Santa Barbara lab. This ambitious plan would see the development of an experimental machine able to solve problems much more quickly and efficiently than a classical machine could. The team led by neuroscientist Bruce Gordon of the University of Toronto, believes that their design, which involves using silicon chips for storing information instead of ‘classical’ neurons, will yield effective real-time solutions to many programming challenges. Furthermore, the team claims that their approach, which does not use ‘brains’ in the same sense as classical computers do, will achieve quantum supremacy.

Quantum computing holds great promise for solving all sorts of technical issues. However, many questions remain unanswered, such as how well the design of qubits can be mathematically handled and whether they will truly exhibit effective ‘teleportation’ properties. The idea of using entangled qubits as an input to a classical algorithm for solving optimization and other problems is also still very much under discussion. Physicists around the world are pouring resources into learning more about these strange new devices.